There are two types of typhoid fever vaccines registered in Hong Kong: injectable inactivated and oral live attenuated typhoid vaccines.
For injectable inactivated typhoid vaccine, it can be given to persons two years of age and older. The vaccine should be given at least two weeks prior to departure . Revaccination should be considered every three years for those at continuous risk of infection.
For oral live attenuated typhoid vaccine, it can be given to persons six years of age and older. The primary series can be given as three-dose or four-dose on alternative days, with the last dose given at least one week prior to departure. For those at continuous risk of infection, revaccination should be considered every three or five years depending on the number of doses received for the primary series.
Vaccination should be considered for those going to typhoid endemic areas, in particular long-stay travellers and those visiting rural areas where food and beverage choices may be limited.
For injectable inactivated typhoid vaccine, the most common adverse reactions are injection site pain, redness, and swelling, which usually resolve within 48 hours of vaccination.
Fever, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting are the reported adverse reactions for oral live attenuated typhoid vaccine. Rarely, rash may also occur.
Typhoid vaccination should not be administered to persons with a history of a severe allergic reaction to a vaccine component or following a prior dose of the vaccine. Also, oral live attenuated typhoid vaccine should not be administered to persons with acute febrile illness, vomiting or diarrhea.